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Home » Oxidation Number Vs Formal Charge: What’S The Difference?

Oxidation Number Vs Formal Charge: What’S The Difference?

Difference Between Formal Charge And Oxidation State | Compare The  Difference Between Similar Terms

What is the difference between oxidation and charge?

Let’s explore the difference between oxidation and charge.

Oxidation states represent the number of electrons an atom gains or loses when forming chemical bonds within a molecule. This is a theoretical value, helping us understand how electrons are distributed in a molecule. Charges, on the other hand, describe the actual electrical charge of an individual atom, ion, or entire molecule.

Imagine a molecule like water (H₂O). Oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, so it pulls the shared electrons closer to itself. This results in a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom and partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms. In this case, the oxidation states of oxygen and hydrogen represent their theoretical gain or loss of electrons due to bonding, while the charges describe the actual distribution of electrons, creating partial charges within the molecule.

To simplify:

Oxidation states are like a theoretical “scorecard” of electrons gained or lost in a molecule.
Charges are the real-world measurement of how electrons are distributed, creating actual positive or negative charges.

A deeper dive into Oxidation States:

Oxidation states are based on a set of rules that determine the hypothetical charge an atom would have if all bonds were purely ionic. These rules are based on electronegativity differences and the tendency of certain elements to gain or lose electrons. For example, in NaCl (sodium chloride), sodium has an oxidation state of +1 and chlorine has an oxidation state of -1. This means sodium theoretically “lost” one electron and chlorine theoretically “gained” one electron.

While oxidation states are theoretical, they are incredibly useful for predicting chemical reactions, balancing equations, and understanding the behavior of atoms within molecules.

Charges:

Charges, on the other hand, are actual measurements of the electrical charge an atom, ion, or molecule possesses. They can be positive, negative, or neutral. For example, a sodium ion (Na+) has a charge of +1, while a chloride ion (Cl-) has a charge of -1.

These charges are essential for understanding how molecules interact with each other, especially in ionic bonding.

What is the difference between formal charge and oxidation state MCAT?

Let’s dive into the difference between formal charge and oxidation state, two important concepts that come up on the MCAT.

You’re probably familiar with the idea that electrons are shared in covalent bonds. But, how do we keep track of them? That’s where formal charge and oxidation state come in.

Formal charge assumes that the electrons in a bond are shared equally between the atoms. To calculate formal charge, we assign each atom one electron for each bond it forms and one electron for each lone pair.

For example, consider the molecule water (H₂O). Each hydrogen atom is bonded to the oxygen atom, and the oxygen atom has two lone pairs. The formal charge of each hydrogen atom is 1 – 1 = 0. The formal charge of the oxygen atom is 6 – 4 – 2 = 0.

Oxidation state is a little different. Instead of assuming equal sharing, oxidation state considers the electronegativity of the atoms involved in the bond. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons. In a bond between two atoms with different electronegativities, the more electronegative atom will “pull” the electrons towards itself, giving it a more negative oxidation state.

For example, in water (H₂O), oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. So, in calculating the oxidation state, we assign both electrons in the O-H bond to the oxygen atom. This gives oxygen an oxidation state of -2 (because it “gains” two electrons) and each hydrogen an oxidation state of +1 (because it “loses” one electron).

So, the key takeaway is this: formal charge assumes equal sharing of electrons, while oxidation state takes into account the relative electronegativities of the atoms involved. These are both important concepts that can help you understand the structure and reactivity of molecules.

How is formal charge distribution different from oxidation states?

Formal charge and oxidation state are two different ways to understand the distribution of electrons in molecules.

Formal charge helps us estimate how the electrons are distributed within a molecule. It’s like taking a snapshot of the molecule and assigning charges to each atom based on the number of electrons it “owns.” We do this by assuming that the electrons in a bond are shared equally between the two atoms.

Oxidation state, on the other hand, focuses on the overall charge an atom would have if all the bonds were completely ionic. It considers the electronegativity of the atoms and assumes that the more electronegative atom “takes” both electrons in a bond. This provides a more realistic picture of how electrons are distributed in a molecule, taking into account the actual electron density around each atom.

Let’s break down the key differences:

Formal charge is a theoretical concept that helps us understand the distribution of electrons in a molecule based on a simplified model. It’s useful for predicting the reactivity and stability of molecules.
Oxidation state is a more realistic approach that considers the electronegativity of atoms and assigns charges based on the actual distribution of electron density. It’s important for understanding the movement of electrons in chemical reactions.

To illustrate, imagine a simple molecule like water (H₂O).

* Using formal charge, we assign each hydrogen atom a formal charge of +1 and the oxygen atom a formal charge of -2. This is because the oxygen atom has six valence electrons, and it “owns” two of the four electrons from the two oxygen-hydrogen bonds (two shared electrons per bond), leaving it with six valence electrons.
* However, using oxidation state, we assign the hydrogen atoms an oxidation state of +1 and the oxygen atom an oxidation state of -2. This is because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so it “attracts” the electrons in the bonds more strongly. The oxygen atom thus “gains” one electron from each hydrogen atom, resulting in an oxidation state of -2.

While formal charge can be useful for understanding the distribution of electrons in a molecule, oxidation state provides a more realistic and nuanced picture. Ultimately, both methods are valuable tools for understanding the behavior of molecules.

What is the difference between formal charge and ion charge?

Formal charge is a concept used to describe the charge distribution within a molecule, whereas ion charge refers to the overall charge of an ion. Let’s break down the differences:

Formal Charge

Imagine atoms as little partners sharing electrons in a covalent bond. Formal charge helps us understand how these shared electrons are distributed between the partners. We assign a hypothetical charge to each atom based on how many electrons it “owns.” This helps us predict the relative charge distribution within the molecule, which in turn affects how the molecule behaves.

Ion Charge

Ions, on the other hand, are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons. This gain or loss of electrons results in a net positive or negative charge on the atom, creating an ion. This charge represents the overall charge of the ion, which is not distributed among its constituent atoms as in the case of formal charge.

Key Differences

Focus: Formal charge focuses on the distribution of charge within a molecule due to covalent bonding. Ion charge focuses on the overall charge of an ion due to electron gain or loss.
Calculation: Formal charge is calculated based on the number of valence electrons and shared electrons. Ion charge is determined by the number of electrons gained or lost.
Nature of Charge: Formal charge is a hypothetical charge assigned to atoms within a molecule. Ion charge is a real charge resulting from electron transfer.

A Simple Analogy

Think of it like a group of friends sharing a pizza. Formal charge is like looking at how many slices each friend gets. It’s a way of understanding how the pizza is divided up. Ion charge is like looking at the overall number of slices left over or needing to be added. If there are extra slices, it’s like a positive charge, and if slices are missing, it’s like a negative charge.

To Summarize

Formal charge and ion charge are distinct concepts that describe different aspects of charge distribution in molecules and ions. Formal charge helps us understand the distribution of electrons within a molecule, while ion charge describes the overall charge of an ion.

Is oxidation number equal to formal charge?

Formal charge and oxidation number are ways of assigning electrons to atoms in molecules. Formal charge doesn’t consider electronegativity, while oxidation number does. Both systems simply track electrons to make calculations easier.

Let’s break down the difference between formal charge and oxidation number:

Formal charge focuses on how many electrons an atom *should* have in a molecule, based on its position and the number of bonds it forms. It’s a theoretical concept, assuming equal sharing of electrons.

Oxidation number focuses on the charge an atom *would* have if all the bonds were ionic. This means it considers the electronegativity of each atom and assigns the electrons to the more electronegative atom.

To illustrate, imagine a simple molecule like water (H₂O). In formal charge, each hydrogen atom has a formal charge of +1, and the oxygen atom has a formal charge of -2. This is because hydrogen wants one electron, and oxygen wants two.

In oxidation number, the hydrogen atoms have an oxidation number of +1, and the oxygen atom has an oxidation number of -2. Here, the electronegativity of oxygen is higher, so the two shared electrons are assigned to the oxygen atom.

So, while formal charge is useful for understanding the structure of a molecule, oxidation number reflects how electrons are actually distributed, taking electronegativity into account.

Is oxidation number just the charge?

You’re right to think about the connection between oxidation number and charge. It’s a common question!

For simple ions, the oxidation number is exactly the same as the charge on the ion. For example, sodium (Na) in the Na+ ion has an oxidation number of +1, and chlorine (Cl) in the Cl- ion has an oxidation number of -1.

But it’s important to remember that this is only true for simple ions. Oxidation numbers can be different from the charge in more complex situations. Here’s why:

Oxidation numbers are a way of keeping track of electrons in a molecule or polyatomic ion. They’re assigned based on a set of rules that help us understand how electrons are shared or transferred between atoms.

For instance, let’s look at water (H2O). Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, meaning it attracts electrons more strongly. This leads to a slight negative charge on the oxygen atom and a slight positive charge on the hydrogen atoms. However, because water is a neutral molecule, the overall charge is zero.

The oxidation number reflects this sharing of electrons. Oxygen in water has an oxidation number of -2, while each hydrogen atom has an oxidation number of +1. Even though the hydrogen atoms have a slight positive charge, they still haven’t completely lost their electrons. Their oxidation number reflects the fact that they’re sharing electrons with the oxygen atom.

So, oxidation numbers tell us about the electron distribution within a molecule or ion, even if the atoms don’t carry a full charge. They’re a useful tool for understanding how atoms interact and form bonds.

What is the difference between oxidation number formal charge and valency?

Let’s break down the differences between valency, oxidation number, and formal charge. These terms are all related to how atoms interact in chemical bonds, but they represent different aspects of those interactions.

Valency tells us about the number of electrons an atom can use to form chemical bonds. Imagine it like the number of “hands” an atom has to hold onto other atoms. For example, hydrogen has a valency of one because it can form one bond, while carbon has a valency of four because it can form four bonds.

Oxidation number, on the other hand, represents the hypothetical charge an atom would have if all its bonds were completely ionic. Ionic bonds involve the complete transfer of electrons, which is not always the case in real-world molecules. So, the oxidation number provides a way to track electron distribution in a molecule even if the bonding isn’t perfectly ionic.

Formal charge is another concept that helps us understand electron distribution in molecules. It represents the charge an atom would have if all the electrons in a bond were shared equally between the two atoms. This is a more realistic representation of bonding in covalent molecules, where electrons are shared rather than completely transferred.

Here’s a helpful way to think about the difference between oxidation number and formal charge:

Oxidation number: Focuses on the *overall* charge an atom appears to have in a molecule, assuming ionic bonding.
Formal charge: Focuses on the *theoretical* charge an atom would have if the electrons were shared equally in a covalent bond.

Let’s use an example to illustrate this further. Consider the molecule carbon dioxide (CO2).

Valency: Carbon has a valency of four, meaning it can form four bonds. Oxygen has a valency of two. This is why we see carbon forming two double bonds with two oxygen atoms in CO2.
Oxidation number: The oxidation number of carbon in CO2 is +4, and the oxidation number of each oxygen atom is -2. This reflects the fact that carbon appears to have lost four electrons (becoming positive) while each oxygen appears to have gained two electrons (becoming negative).
Formal charge: In CO2, the formal charge of carbon is zero, and the formal charge of each oxygen atom is zero. This is because the electrons in the double bonds are shared more or less equally between the carbon and oxygen atoms.

Understanding the differences between these concepts will help you delve deeper into the fascinating world of chemical bonding!

Is there a difference between oxidation state and oxidation number?

Let’s dive into the concepts of oxidation state and oxidation number. You might be wondering if they are the same thing. While they are closely related, there’s a subtle distinction.

Oxidation state refers to the hypothetical charge an atom would have if all its bonds were completely ionic. It’s a way of describing the degree of oxidation of an atom within a molecule or compound.

Oxidation number, on the other hand, is the charge an atom would have if all its bonds were broken and the electrons were assigned to the more electronegative atom. This means the oxidation number is a more practical and realistic representation of the charge an atom carries.

Think of it this way: Imagine you have a molecule with different atoms connected by bonds. The oxidation state is like assigning a theoretical charge based on the type of bonds present. The oxidation number is like actually breaking those bonds and seeing how the electrons distribute, leading to a more practical charge.

Now, let’s elaborate on the second part of your question, “We can say that oxidation number as the charge that could be retained on the central metal atom once all the ligands are removed from the atom.” This statement focuses on the concept of coordination complexes, which are molecules formed by a central metal atom surrounded by ligands.

In coordination complexes, the oxidation number of the central metal atom is crucial for understanding its behavior. Removing the ligands, which are the atoms or molecules directly attached to the central metal, reveals the charge that the metal atom effectively carries.

For instance, consider the complex [Co(NH3)6]3+, where the central metal atom is cobalt. The oxidation number of cobalt in this complex is +3. This means that if we remove all the ammonia ligands (NH3), the cobalt atom would have a charge of +3.

The oxidation number in coordination complexes helps predict their reactivity, stability, and other chemical properties. It is also essential for understanding the electronic structure of these complexes.

What is the difference between formal charge and actual charge?

It’s important to understand that formal charge is different from the actual charge of an atom. Formal charge is a theoretical concept that doesn’t consider electronegativity. It assumes that electrons in a bond are shared equally between the atoms involved. This simplification helps us make sense of molecular structures and reaction mechanisms, but it doesn’t necessarily reflect the real distribution of electrons in a molecule.

Think of formal charge as a bookkeeping tool. It helps us track the electrons and assign a charge to each atom based on the assumption of equal sharing. However, in reality, atoms in a bond don’t always share electrons equally. Some atoms are more electronegative than others, meaning they have a stronger pull on shared electrons. This unequal sharing leads to a partial charge, which is the actual charge that an atom experiences in a molecule.

Here’s an example to illustrate the difference: In a water molecule (H2O), the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms. This means that the oxygen atom pulls the shared electrons closer to itself, giving it a slightly negative actual charge. Conversely, the hydrogen atoms have a slightly positive actual charge because they are losing some electron density. However, if we calculate the formal charge of each atom in water, we find that oxygen has a formal charge of 0 and each hydrogen atom has a formal charge of +1. This is because formal charge assumes equal sharing of electrons, but in reality, the oxygen atom is more electronegative and therefore has a slightly negative actual charge.

To summarize, formal charge is a theoretical concept that simplifies the understanding of electron distribution in molecules. It’s a useful tool for predicting and explaining chemical behavior, but it’s important to remember that it doesn’t reflect the actual charge of an atom in a molecule. Actual charge, also known as partial charge, takes into account the electronegativity of the atoms involved and provides a more realistic picture of electron distribution in molecules.

See more here: What Is The Difference Between Formal Charge And Oxidation State Mcat? | Oxidation Number Vs Formal Charge

What is the difference between formal charge and oxidation state?

What’s the Difference Between Formal Charge and Oxidation State?

You might be wondering how formal charge and oxidation state are different. They both represent the charge of an atom in a molecule or ion, but they’re calculated in different ways. Let’s break it down.

Formal charge assumes that all electrons in a bond are shared equally between the two atoms involved. It’s a way of assigning charge to an atom based on a hypothetical scenario. Think of it like a bookkeeper trying to balance the books for an atom in a molecule.

Oxidation state reflects the actual charge an atom would have if all the bonding electrons were assigned to the more electronegative atom. It’s a more realistic picture of how electrons are distributed in a molecule.

Here’s a handy table to illustrate the key differences:

| Feature | Formal Charge | Oxidation State |
|—|—|—|
| Calculation | Based on the number of valence electrons and the number of bonds | Based on electronegativity and the assignment of electrons |
| Representation | Superscript next to the atom | Roman numeral in parentheses after the atom |
| Assumption | Equal sharing of electrons in a bond | Electrons assigned to the more electronegative atom |

Think of formal charge as the theoretical charge, and oxidation state as the real-world charge. Both are valuable tools for understanding how atoms interact in molecules, but they provide different perspectives on the distribution of electrons.

For example, in a water molecule (H2O), the formal charge of oxygen is 0, and the formal charge of each hydrogen is 0. However, the oxidation state of oxygen is -2, and the oxidation state of each hydrogen is +1. This difference arises because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so it “pulls” the electrons in the bonds closer to itself.

While formal charge can help predict the stability of a molecule, oxidation state gives us a better understanding of the actual distribution of electrons within a molecule, which can be helpful in predicting chemical reactions.

Is oxidation number a formal charge?

It’s important to note that oxidation number is often mistakenly described as a formal charge. However, these terms have distinct and separate meanings. Let’s delve into why this misconception arises and clarify the difference.

While oxidation number reflects the hypothetical charge an atom would have if all the bonds were completely ionic, formal charge is calculated based on the assumption that all electrons in a bond are shared equally between the two atoms. This distinction is crucial because the concept of oxidation number is based on a purely hypothetical situation and doesn’t represent the actual charge distribution in a molecule.

In many cases, the valence of an atom in a molecule might coincidentally match its oxidation number. However, this doesn’t make them synonymous. Valence refers to the number of bonds an atom can form, whereas oxidation number reflects the hypothetical charge assigned based on electronegativity differences in a molecule.

For example, in water (H₂O), the oxidation number of oxygen is -2, and the formal charge is 0. This is because the oxygen atom is considered to have gained two electrons from the hydrogen atoms, resulting in a -2 charge based on its electronegativity. However, the electrons in the O-H bonds are shared equally, leading to a formal charge of 0.

The key takeaway is that oxidation number and formal charge are distinct concepts with different meanings and calculations. It’s crucial to understand this distinction to avoid confusion and to correctly interpret the information conveyed by these terms.

What is oxidation number formalism?

Let’s talk about oxidation number formalism. It’s a helpful tool for understanding how electrons are distributed in a molecule. Basically, it assigns a charge to each atom in a molecule, based on the assumption that all bonding electrons are shared equally between the atoms involved.

Now, oxidation number formalism isn’t the only way to assign a charge to an atom in a molecule. Another important method is called formal charge. So, what’s the difference between oxidation number and formal charge?

Oxidation number tells us about the *apparent* charge on an atom in a molecule. It’s based on the electronegativity of the atoms involved in the bond, meaning how strongly an atom attracts electrons to itself. For example, in water (H₂O), the oxidation number of oxygen is -2 because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. This means oxygen “pulls” the electrons closer to itself, giving it a negative oxidation number.

Formal charge, on the other hand, is based on the *theoretical* distribution of electrons in a molecule. It’s calculated by assuming all electrons in a bond are shared equally between the two atoms involved. This can sometimes be different from the real-life distribution of electrons in a molecule.

Here’s a simple way to think about it: imagine a tug-of-war. Oxidation number tells us who’s winning the tug-of-war (who’s pulling the electrons closer), while formal charge tells us how much each team member has contributed to the tug-of-war, assuming they were pulling equally.

Both oxidation number and formal charge are valuable tools for understanding the behavior of molecules, but it’s important to remember that they are just models. The real-life distribution of electrons in a molecule is much more complex and nuanced.

What is oxidation number (on) in chemistry?

You’re asking about oxidation number (ON), right? It’s a really important concept in chemistry, and it’s actually quite straightforward to understand. Think of it like this: oxidation number is a way to keep track of how many electrons an atom *appears* to have gained or lost when it forms a chemical bond.

Let’s break it down. We can define oxidation number like this:

ON = Number of electrons in the valence shell of a free atom – Number of electrons remaining on the atom in a molecule when all bonds are broken heterolytically.

In simpler terms: We’re comparing the number of electrons an atom *should* have (in its neutral, isolated state) to the number of electrons it *appears* to have in a molecule. This difference tells us how many electrons the atom has gained or lost to form the bond.

Let’s look at a few examples to see how this works:

Sodium (Na): Sodium has one electron in its outermost shell (the valence shell). When it forms a bond with chlorine (Cl), it *appears* to lose that electron, giving it an oxidation number of +1.
Oxygen (O): Oxygen has six electrons in its valence shell. When it forms a bond with hydrogen (H), it *appears* to gain two electrons, giving it an oxidation number of -2.

So, in essence, oxidation number helps us understand how electrons are shared (or not shared) in chemical bonds. It’s a valuable tool for predicting how atoms will interact and the types of compounds they will form.

But remember, oxidation number is just a bookkeeping tool. It’s not an actual physical property of the atom. It’s just a way to represent the *apparent* gain or loss of electrons in a molecule.

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Oxidation Number Vs Formal Charge: What’S The Difference?

Alright, let’s dive into the world of oxidation number and formal charge. These concepts might seem similar at first glance, but they actually describe different things when it comes to how electrons are distributed in a molecule.

Understanding Oxidation Number

Imagine you have a molecule like water (H₂O). Each element in the molecule has a certain oxidation number, which represents the hypothetical charge it would have if all the bonds were completely ionic.

Think of it this way: oxidation number is like a “score” that reflects how many electrons an atom has gained or lost in a compound. If an atom has gained electrons, its oxidation number becomes more negative. If it has lost electrons, its oxidation number becomes more positive.

Here’s the cool thing about oxidation numbers: they follow some rules.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers

1. Free elements: The oxidation number of an element in its free state (like a lone O atom) is always zero.
2. Monatomic ions: The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. For example, the oxidation number of sodium (Na+) is +1.
3. Hydrogen: Hydrogen usually has an oxidation number of +1, except when it’s bonded to a metal (like in NaH), where it has an oxidation number of -1.
4. Oxygen: Oxygen usually has an oxidation number of -2, except in peroxides (like H₂O₂) where it’s -1, and in compounds with fluorine where it’s positive.
5. Fluorine: Fluorine always has an oxidation number of -1.
6. Sum of oxidation numbers: In a neutral compound, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all the atoms must equal zero.
7. Sum of oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion: The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion.

So, in the case of water (H₂O), we can figure out the oxidation numbers like this:

* Oxygen is usually -2.
* There are two hydrogen atoms, and we know hydrogen is usually +1.
* To make the sum zero (-2 + 1 + 1 = 0), the oxidation numbers of the hydrogen atoms must be +1.

Using Oxidation Numbers

We use oxidation numbers for various things, like:

* Balancing redox reactions: Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons. Oxidation numbers help us track the electrons lost and gained during these reactions.
* Predicting the properties of compounds: Oxidation numbers can give us an idea of how reactive a compound might be or what kind of chemical bonds it might form.

Understanding Formal Charge

Now, let’s talk about formal charge. Imagine a molecule like methane (CH₄). Each atom in this molecule shares electrons in covalent bonds. Formal charge is a way to figure out how many electrons an atom “owns” in a molecule, based on the sharing of electrons in bonds.

How to Calculate Formal Charge

1. Count valence electrons: Start by counting the number of valence electrons each atom has in its neutral state. For example, carbon has four valence electrons, and hydrogen has one.
2. Count electrons in bonds: Next, count the number of electrons an atom “owns” in a molecule. For each single bond, an atom “owns” one electron. For each double bond, it “owns” two, and for each triple bond, it “owns” three.
3. Calculate formal charge: Formal charge is calculated by subtracting the number of electrons an atom “owns” from the number of valence electrons it has.

Formal charge = (valence electrons) – (non-bonding electrons) – (1/2 bonding electrons)

Here’s how to calculate the formal charge of the carbon atom in methane (CH₄):

* Valence electrons: Carbon has four valence electrons.
* Non-bonding electrons: Carbon has no non-bonding electrons in methane.
* Bonding electrons: Carbon has eight bonding electrons (four single bonds).
* Formal charge: 4 – 0 – (8/2) = 0

Using Formal Charge

Formal charge helps us with:

* Predicting the most stable Lewis structure: Lewis structures represent the bonding within a molecule. The structure with the lowest formal charges on each atom is often considered the most stable structure.
* Understanding the reactivity of molecules: Formal charge helps predict how a molecule might react with other molecules.

Key Differences: Oxidation Number vs. Formal Charge

Here’s a table summarizing the main differences between oxidation number and formal charge:

| Feature | Oxidation Number | Formal Charge |
| ——————- | ———————— | ———————— |
| Concept | Hypothetical charge | Electron ownership |
| Bond type | Assumes ionic bonds | Considers covalent bonds |
| Calculation | Based on rules | Based on electron sharing |
| Usage | Redox reactions, predicting properties | Lewis structures, reactivity |

Oxidation Number vs. Formal Charge – An Analogy

Think of oxidation number as a “postal code” for a molecule. It’s a way of identifying the address or location of electrons in a molecule, even if those electrons are distributed in a more complicated way.

Formal charge is like a “property deed”. It tells us who “owns” which electrons in a molecule, considering how those electrons are shared in covalent bonds.

FAQs About Oxidation Number and Formal Charge

1. Why are these concepts important?

Both oxidation number and formal charge are important because they help us understand how electrons are distributed in a molecule. This information is crucial for predicting the reactivity of molecules, balancing chemical reactions, and understanding the properties of compounds.
2. Can oxidation number and formal charge be the same?

Yes, sometimes the oxidation number and formal charge can be the same for an atom. For example, in water (H₂O), the oxidation number and formal charge of oxygen are both -2. However, this isn’t always the case. In many molecules, they will differ.
3. What are the limitations of these concepts?

Both concepts are simplified representations of electron distribution. Oxidation numbers assume all bonds are completely ionic, which isn’t always accurate. Formal charge doesn’t always represent the actual charge distribution in a molecule.
4. Are there any other ways to understand electron distribution in molecules?

Yes, there are other ways to describe electron distribution, such as using molecular orbital theory, which provides a more accurate picture of how electrons behave in molecules.
5. What are some examples of oxidation numbers and formal charges?

Here are some examples:

* CO₂: Carbon has an oxidation number of +4, while oxygen has an oxidation number of -2. The formal charge of carbon is 0, and the formal charge of each oxygen is 0.
* NH₃: Nitrogen has an oxidation number of -3, and hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1. The formal charge of nitrogen is 0, and the formal charge of each hydrogen is 0.
* SO₄²⁻: Sulfur has an oxidation number of +6, and oxygen has an oxidation number of -2. The formal charge of sulfur is +2, and the formal charge of each oxygen is -1.

Understanding the differences between oxidation number and formal charge is key to unlocking a deeper understanding of chemical bonding and reactivity. So, remember those “postal codes” and “property deeds” as you explore the fascinating world of chemistry!

7.13: Formal Charge and Oxidation Numbers – Chemistry LibreTexts

The oxidation number of a monatomic ion equals the charge on that ion, e.g., Na + and Cl –. Some elements have the same oxidation number in nearly all their compounds. Elements in periodic group IA have oxidation numbers of +1, and Chemistry LibreTexts

Comparing formal charges to oxidation states – Khan Academy

Formal charge and oxidation number are just convenient ways of assigning electrons to atoms in molecules. The only difference between the two is that formal charge doesn’t Khan Academy

4.3: Formal Charge and Oxidation State – Chemistry

Compute formal charges for atoms in any Lewis structure. Use formal charges to identify the most reasonable Lewis structure for a given Chemistry LibreTexts

Formal Charge vs. Oxidation State – What’s the Difference? | This

Learn the difference between formal charge and oxidation state, two concepts used to describe the distribution of electrons in molecules and ions. Formal charge is based on thisvsthat.io

Formal Charges and Oxidation States – University of Lethbridge

Oxidation states of atoms in convalent compounds are determined by formally cleaving every bond heterolytically in such a way that the bonding electron pair (or bonding ulethbridge.ca

Formal charge on oxygen (video) | Khan Academy

When oxygen bonds we have found it to either have a formal charge of 0 (2 bonds and 2 lone pairs), +1 (3 bonds and 1 lone pair), and -1 (1 bond and 3 lone pairs). There are a Khan Academy

Oxidation numbers – Boston University

Formal charge tell us about the tendency of electrons to shift among different atoms in a molecule. Oxidation number is an alternative electron counting device. Boston University

Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related

The oxidation number of an atom in a molecule is based on a formalism that forces a covalent compound to possess complete ionic character and may be defined as the charge umb.edu

Oxidation number vs charge? – Chemistry Stack Exchange

*oxidation numbers: are the “act” of electrons moving. while *charge: is what the atom “wants” to do with its electrons.-Can anyone please clear up the distinction Chemistry Stack Exchange

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Link to this article: oxidation number vs formal charge.

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Oxidation Number Vs States (Upangea) : R/Mcat
Formal Charge Vs Oxidation Number Made Super Simple With Examples Chemistry  Mcat - Youtube
Formal Charge Vs Oxidation Number Made Super Simple With Examples Chemistry Mcat – Youtube
Resonance Structures And Formal Charge (M8Q3) – Uw-Madison Chemistry  103/104 Resource Book
Resonance Structures And Formal Charge (M8Q3) – Uw-Madison Chemistry 103/104 Resource Book
Oxidation State Calculated From Lewis Structure Vs Formula? Formal Charge  Vs Oxidation State? : R/Mcat
Oxidation State Calculated From Lewis Structure Vs Formula? Formal Charge Vs Oxidation State? : R/Mcat
Fragmentation Methods For Assigning The Oxidation Number And The Formal...  | Download Scientific Diagram
Fragmentation Methods For Assigning The Oxidation Number And The Formal… | Download Scientific Diagram
Formal Charge Versus Oxidation Number | Pdf
Formal Charge Versus Oxidation Number | Pdf
What Is Difference Between Formal Charges And Oxidation State
What Is Difference Between Formal Charges And Oxidation State
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States :0: | Chegg.Com
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States :0: | Chegg.Com
Calculating The Oxidation State Of A Carbon – Master Organic Chemistry
Calculating The Oxidation State Of A Carbon – Master Organic Chemistry
Both Oxidation State And Formal Charge Involve Conventions For Assigning  Valence Electrons To Bonded Atoms In Compounds, But Clearly They Are Not  The Same. Describe Several Ways In Which These Concepts Differ. |
Both Oxidation State And Formal Charge Involve Conventions For Assigning Valence Electrons To Bonded Atoms In Compounds, But Clearly They Are Not The Same. Describe Several Ways In Which These Concepts Differ. |
General Chemistry Chemistry 1A Ch. 10: The Shapes Of Molecules - Ppt  Download
General Chemistry Chemistry 1A Ch. 10: The Shapes Of Molecules – Ppt Download
Formal Charge: Definition, Formula, And Examples
Formal Charge: Definition, Formula, And Examples
Comparing Formal Charges And Oxidation States - Youtube
Comparing Formal Charges And Oxidation States – Youtube
Oxidation States Of Organic Molecules - Chemistry Libretexts
Oxidation States Of Organic Molecules – Chemistry Libretexts
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States | Chegg.Com
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States | Chegg.Com
Formal Charge Formula: Definitions, Examples, Significance, Fun Facts,  Importance, Why It Exists | Collegesearch
Formal Charge Formula: Definitions, Examples, Significance, Fun Facts, Importance, Why It Exists | Collegesearch
Iupac - Oxidation State (O04365)
Iupac – Oxidation State (O04365)
Difference Between Oxidation Number And Charge | Compare The Difference  Between Similar Terms
Difference Between Oxidation Number And Charge | Compare The Difference Between Similar Terms
Chapter 10 The Shapes Of Molecules. - Ppt Download
Chapter 10 The Shapes Of Molecules. – Ppt Download
What Is Difference Between Formal Charges And Oxidation State
What Is Difference Between Formal Charges And Oxidation State
Formal Charges And Exceptions To The Octet Rule - Youtube
Formal Charges And Exceptions To The Octet Rule – Youtube
Calculating Oxidation Numbers In Mcat General Chemistry
Calculating Oxidation Numbers In Mcat General Chemistry
Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States For The Lewis Diagram Above,  Determine: - The Overall Charge Of The Molecular Species Shown. - The Formal  Charge On The Chlorine Atom. - The Formal
Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States For The Lewis Diagram Above, Determine: – The Overall Charge Of The Molecular Species Shown. – The Formal Charge On The Chlorine Atom. – The Formal
Answered: Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation… | Bartleby
Answered: Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation… | Bartleby
Oxidation State - Wikipedia
Oxidation State – Wikipedia
Pdf] Valence, Oxidation Number, And Formal Charge: Three Related But  Fundamentally Different Concepts | Semantic Scholar
Pdf] Valence, Oxidation Number, And Formal Charge: Three Related But Fundamentally Different Concepts | Semantic Scholar
Redox - Why Are Electrons Shared Equally When Calculating Formal Charge,  But Unequally When Calculating Oxidation State? - Chemistry Stack Exchange
Redox – Why Are Electrons Shared Equally When Calculating Formal Charge, But Unequally When Calculating Oxidation State? – Chemistry Stack Exchange
Oxidation And Reduction | Ppt
Oxidation And Reduction | Ppt
Formal Charge — Overview & Calculation - Expii
Formal Charge — Overview & Calculation – Expii
In The Lewis Structure For Clo3F, Chlorine Has A Formal Charge Of And An Oxidation  Number Of. | Homework.Study.Com
In The Lewis Structure For Clo3F, Chlorine Has A Formal Charge Of And An Oxidation Number Of. | Homework.Study.Com
Comparison Of Dipole Moment Calculated From The Formal Charge And... |  Download Scientific Diagram
Comparison Of Dipole Moment Calculated From The Formal Charge And… | Download Scientific Diagram
Oxidation State - Wikiwand
Oxidation State – Wikiwand
Formal Charge Versus Oxidation Number | Pdf
Formal Charge Versus Oxidation Number | Pdf
Redox Reactions General Chemistry Mcat – Medlife Mastery
Redox Reactions General Chemistry Mcat – Medlife Mastery
What Is The Difference Between The Oxidation Number Of An Atom In A  Compound And The Formal Charge On An Atom In A Compound? Why Are They  Defined Differently And How Do
What Is The Difference Between The Oxidation Number Of An Atom In A Compound And The Formal Charge On An Atom In A Compound? Why Are They Defined Differently And How Do
Solved] University Of Waterloo Chem 120 Questions Consider The Lewis... |  Course Hero
Solved] University Of Waterloo Chem 120 Questions Consider The Lewis… | Course Hero
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States :F: | Chegg.Com
Solved Formal Charge Distribution Vs Oxidation States :F: | Chegg.Com
Quick Question: When Figuring Out Oxidation States Or Formal Charges Of  Atoms In A Molecular, Do We Need To Care About The “Overall” Molecular  Charge? : R/Mcat
Quick Question: When Figuring Out Oxidation States Or Formal Charges Of Atoms In A Molecular, Do We Need To Care About The “Overall” Molecular Charge? : R/Mcat
How To Calculate Formal Charge
How To Calculate Formal Charge
File:Co2Comp.Png - Wikipedia
File:Co2Comp.Png – Wikipedia
Calculating Oxidation Numbers In Mcat General Chemistry
Calculating Oxidation Numbers In Mcat General Chemistry
Find The Formal Charge Of 'O' In Ozone.
Find The Formal Charge Of ‘O’ In Ozone.
Oxidation States And Ionicity | Nature Materials
Oxidation States And Ionicity | Nature Materials
Formal Charges — Organic Chemistry Tutor
Formal Charges — Organic Chemistry Tutor
Toward A Comprehensive Definition Of Oxidation State
Toward A Comprehensive Definition Of Oxidation State
Oxidation Numbers & Formal Charge
Oxidation Numbers & Formal Charge
Write Lewis Structures That Obey The Octet Rule For The Foll | Quizlet
Write Lewis Structures That Obey The Octet Rule For The Foll | Quizlet
Ppt - 1.6 Formal Charge Powerpoint Presentation, Free Download - Id:5490679
Ppt – 1.6 Formal Charge Powerpoint Presentation, Free Download – Id:5490679
What Is The Oxidation State And Number Of Oxygen In Ozone? Help Me To  Differentiate Between Oxidation Number And State. - Quora
What Is The Oxidation State And Number Of Oxygen In Ozone? Help Me To Differentiate Between Oxidation Number And State. – Quora
Answered: In The Following Lewis Structure For… | Bartleby
Answered: In The Following Lewis Structure For… | Bartleby
Oxidation Number - Periodic Table Elements - Definition, Rules
Oxidation Number – Periodic Table Elements – Definition, Rules
Draw A Lewis Structure For The Most Important Resonance Form Of The  Following Ion, Showing Formal Charges And Oxidation Numbers Of The Atoms,  Aso_4^{3-}. | Homework.Study.Com
Draw A Lewis Structure For The Most Important Resonance Form Of The Following Ion, Showing Formal Charges And Oxidation Numbers Of The Atoms, Aso_4^{3-}. | Homework.Study.Com
Understanding Electron Bookkeeping: Formal Charge Vs. Oxidation States |  Assignments Organic Chemistry | Docsity
Understanding Electron Bookkeeping: Formal Charge Vs. Oxidation States | Assignments Organic Chemistry | Docsity
Oxidation State - Wikiwand
Oxidation State – Wikiwand
Pdf] Valence, Oxidation Number, And Formal Charge: Three Related But  Fundamentally Different Concepts | Semantic Scholar
Pdf] Valence, Oxidation Number, And Formal Charge: Three Related But Fundamentally Different Concepts | Semantic Scholar
In Defence Of Oxidation States - Dalton Transactions (Rsc Publishing)  Doi:10.1039/D0Dt03914D
In Defence Of Oxidation States – Dalton Transactions (Rsc Publishing) Doi:10.1039/D0Dt03914D
1) Electronegativity Means What.(2) Oxidation Number Means(3) Formal C..
1) Electronegativity Means What.(2) Oxidation Number Means(3) Formal C..
How Do I Use Lewis Structures To Determine The Oxidation Numbers Of \\[N\\]  In Compounds Like \\[{N_2}O\\], \\[No\\] , \\[{N_2}{O_3}\\], And  \\[{N_2}{O_5}\\]?
How Do I Use Lewis Structures To Determine The Oxidation Numbers Of \\[N\\] In Compounds Like \\[{N_2}O\\], \\[No\\] , \\[{N_2}{O_3}\\], And \\[{N_2}{O_5}\\]?
Formal Charge - Chemistry Libretexts
Formal Charge – Chemistry Libretexts
Solved] Consider The Lewis Structure Below And Assign (I) Formal Charges;...  | Course Hero
Solved] Consider The Lewis Structure Below And Assign (I) Formal Charges;… | Course Hero
Difference Between Oxidation Number And Valency | Definition, Calculation,  Representation, Examples
Difference Between Oxidation Number And Valency | Definition, Calculation, Representation, Examples
Ochem
Ochem
U Mumu The Formal Charge And Oxidation State Of Cr In Cro2 Ion, Are  Respectively (B) +2, +4 (A) -1, +6 (D) 0, +6 (C) +2, +6 Na Tema Ter And  Exceton
U Mumu The Formal Charge And Oxidation State Of Cr In Cro2 Ion, Are Respectively (B) +2, +4 (A) -1, +6 (D) 0, +6 (C) +2, +6 Na Tema Ter And Exceton
Oxidation Number - Periodic Table Elements - Definition, Rules
Oxidation Number – Periodic Table Elements – Definition, Rules
1. Formal Charge And Oxidation Number 2. Temperature And Heat
1. Formal Charge And Oxidation Number 2. Temperature And Heat
Which One Of These Statements About Formal Charge Is True? (A) Fo... |  Channels For Pearson+
Which One Of These Statements About Formal Charge Is True? (A) Fo… | Channels For Pearson+
Solution] Oxidation State And Resonance Structure | Wizeprep
Solution] Oxidation State And Resonance Structure | Wizeprep

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